F&M College Library

CNX 211: The Future of Public Education

Who Are These People? How do you determine who/what entities created content found freely available online?

The CRAAP Test: Criteria for Evaluating Information


When was the information published or updated? Are the references to other sources up to date? Does currency matter for your topic?  Are all of the links functional?


Is this source relevant to your research question? Does the source meet the requirements of the assignment? Is the information too technical or too simple? Who is the intended audience? Does it add to your knowledge of the topic?


Who is the author? Is the author part of an educational institution or an organization? Can you find information about the author on the internet or with other resources? How often is this author cited? The author may be an individual or an organization.  Does the URL reveal anything about the site? (e.g., .com, .net, .gov, .org, .mil)


Is this information correct and reliable? Is it supported with evidence? Are there spelling or grammar errors? Was the information reviewed or edited before it was published? What are other authors writing about the topic?


What is the purpose of the information? Is it designed to sway your opinion? Does it project a bias? Are there other points of view presented?  Can one determine from what sources the organization is funded?

The CRAAP test was creatd by California State University, Chico

Is sufficient information always available?

Sites to explore regarding Online Reputation Management/ ORM and Search Engine Optimization/SEO:

CNX 211 Librarian

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Lisa Stillwell
Shadek-Fackenthal Library #204