While British copyright law was established in 1710 with the Statute of Anne, it was not heavily enforced until the last quarter of the 18th century. The Copyright Act of 1814 went further, establishing the author, rather than the publisher, with the exclusive right to re-print a work for 28 years after first publication. In 1842, the copyright exclusivity was extended to the author's lifetime plus seven years. International copyright laws were much slower to develop, with authors having little protection from overseas publishers until the Bern International Copyright Convention of 1886.
In the United States, the first copyright law appeared in 1790 and was closely modeled on the Statute of Anne. Copyright protection of 14 years was granted if the author met certain "statutory formalities" - such as copyright registration and printed notification. The Copyright Act of 1831 extended the original term to 28 years, with the option to renew for an additional 14 years. However, in 1834, the Supreme Court ruled that authors did not have the right to control reproduction of their works after the initial publication. Throughout the mid-19th century, many notable American authors received little or no compensation for subsequent editions of their popular works.