Franklin &  Marshall College Library
Lib Res.

ART/AMS 172: Marketplace

Primary vs. Secondary sources

Primary resources are original materials authored or created by individuals who were the actual participants in the topic at hand. These include a wide range of written, oral, and visual records such as correspondence, diaries, memoirs, maps, accounts, speeches, photographs and interviews. Articles published in newspapers and magazines during the time period one is studying are often considered primary resources as well.

Secondary sources are informational resources written by individuals who were not the actual participants in the topic at hand. They may be of value to your research since they often provide greater objectivity and different perspectives as a result of the passage of time. Common secondary sources include encyclopedias, books, journals, dictionaries, handbooks, and bibliographies.

Archives and Manuscript Collections

Archives are the non-current official records of an organization, government body, corporation, or institution that are retained or preserved for their unique information and/or perceived historical value.

Archival materials of a personal nature such as letters, diaries, or wills are often called manuscripts or papers rather than archives since they do not document the official business of an organization, but that of an individual or family.

Search Terminology - Keywords and Subject Headings

When conducting research, always consider alternative keywords and subject headings for your topic at hand.

For this course, alternative keywords may include: markets, marketplace, farmers markets, public markets, market stalls, curb stalls, vendors, sellers, stand holders, stand owners, etc.

Alternative subject headings may include: Commerce, Fairs, Market towns, Aftermarkets, Bazaars (Markets), Covered markets, Ethnic markets, Flea markets, Marketplaces, etc.

How to find books

  • Select "CATALOG" from the Library home page. In finding books for this class, try using the keyword and subject terms mentioned above.
  • When you discover a book of interest, select the "DETAILS" tab, and then the "FULL RECORD" tab to look at the assigned subject headings for that item. Note related subject headings, and click on them to find other books that are described in a similar way, and may prove useful.
  • Remember to search out call numbers in both the STACKS and the REFERENCE ROOM. Call numbers are designed to mirror themselves in these two areas. If you find a valuable book in the STACKS, you will find similar, high quality REFERENCE items under the same call number in the REFERENCE ROOM.

Locating Primary Resources

Lancaster Collections

Archives and Special Collections - Franklin & Marshall College
Organizes, promotes, and preserves the visual and written record of the college, and special collections of the library. Find college archives, manuscript collections, photographs, yearbooks, Lancaster maps and local newspapers.

Lancaster County Historical Society
MarketPlace exhibition and research library. Find 19th and 20th century local newspapers, photographs, and manuscript and archival collections.

Duke Street Library - Library System of Lancaster County
Find 19th and 20th century local newspapers and Lancaster city records.

Directories - U.S. Collections

NUCMC - National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections
A massive database containing records of manuscript collections from across the country. The "Eligibility Guidelines" clarify what kind of manuscripts are included in the database, while various tip sheets and a FAQ provide additional guidance. From the Library of Congress.

Archives USA (4)
Locate primary resources held in over 118,000 Special Collections with links for contact and access information.

Electronic Resources to Locate Secondary Sources

Art/Architectural History

Art Full Text
Variety of international English-language arts publications. Indexing from 1984 to present, abstracting from 1994 to present. Link will launch OmniFile Full Text Mega. Choose database from Subject Area.

BHA (Bibliography of the History of Art) (5)
Covering European and American art from late antiquity to the present, the Bibliography of the History of Art indexes and abstracts art-related books, conference proceedings and dissertations, exhibition and dealer's catalogs, and articles from more than 2,500 periodicals. Covers 1973 to the present.

American Studies/American History

America: History and Life
Comprehensive bibliography of articles on the history and culture of the United States and Canada, from prehistory to present. Covers abstracts 1964 to the present.

Over 2.9 million records covering every major agricultural subject. Compiled by the National Agricultural Library of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Covers 1970 to the present.

Lancaster Newspapers, Inc. (PA)
Local Lancaster newspapers, provided by NewsBank. Covers 1995 to the present.

A more complete list of Lancaster PA historic newspapers (1796-present) can be found here.

Lexis Nexis
Connections to newspaper articles (including New York Times and Washington Post), transcripts (including NPR and CNN), business information (including SEC filings), and legal resources (including state and federal case law).

New York Times - Full Image
The New York Times (Sep 18, 1851 - Dec 31, 2001, full-text) offers full page and article images with searchable full text back to the first issue. The collection includes digital reproductions providing access to every page from every available issue.

Book Catalogs (other than F&M)

A catalog of library holdings worldwide. Now contains over 1 billion records! Search here if you are having difficulty locating books on your topic, and you have plenty of time before your work is due: obtaining books found in WorldCat requires the use of E-Z Borrow and/or Interlibrary Loan (ILL).

Other "How To's"...

Additional Help

Contact Christopher Raab for further assistance or fill out a research appointment request form to meet with a librarian.

Last updated: 8/31/05 cmr