Franklin &  Marshall College Library

 History 410:

The Radical Tradition in Pennsylvania

Reference Sources

American History

American National Biography
Ref CT 213 .A68 1999

Encyclopedia of American Lives
Ref CT 213 .S37 1998

American Chronicle
Ref E 169.1 .G664 1999

American Decades
Ref E 169.12 .A419

American Eras
Ref E162 .A5144

Dictionary of American History
Ref E 174 .A43 1976

The Oxford Companion to United States History
Ref E 174 .O94 2001

The Almanac of American History
Ref E 174.5 .A45 1983

Encyclopedia of American History
Ref E 174.5 .E52 1996

Dictionary of American Biography
Ref E 176 .D56

Encyclopedia of the United States in the 20th Century
Ref E 740.7 .E53


Pennsylvania History

Guide to African American resources at the Pennsylvania State Archives
Ref E185.93.P41 H63 2000

Guide to the state historical markers of Pennsylvania
Ref F150 .B49 2000

Ref F 147.3 .R66 2000

A Guide to the history of Pennsylvania
Ref F149.Z2 G85 1993

A guidebook to historic western Pennsylvania
Ref F147.3 .S65 1991

Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania
Ref F147 .E52 1983

Primary Sources

The raw building blocks of research in both the humanities and social sciences are original materials authored or created by individuals who were the actual participants in the topic at hand. These include a wide range of documents, written, oral and visual such as:

* letters (correspondence)

* diaries

* narratives

* memoirs

* maps

* accounts

* speeches

* interviews

Articles published in newspapers and magazines during the time period one is studying are also often considered to be primary resources.

To locate primary sources, conduct a keyword search in a library catalog, combining terminology representing your topic with any one of the words listed above, or any other terms that describe a primary source:

thadeus stevens and (letters or correspondence)

Citing Primary Sources


Library Catalogs

F&M College Library

Search the catalog to find out what books, journals, newspapers, videos, maps, CDs, music, etc., the library owns.

NOTE: There are no journal articles in the catalog

To find books, begin by conducting a Keyword/"words or phrase" search our your topic.

Analyze your topic or research question and break it down into its key concepts, which becomes the Keyword search. Once you have found a record for an item that looks useful, click on a Subject Heading to retrieve other items with similar content.


TOPIC: "What was the nature of Philadelphian radicalism?"

SEARCH STATEMENT: (philadelphia or philadelphian) and (radical or radicalism)


Philadelphia (Pa.)--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.

Philadelphia (Pa.)--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.

Pennsylvania--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.


Subject/Browse searching is best performed on more well-established topics, such as Pennsylvania, Stevens, Thaddeus, etc.

A subject search on the topic McCarthyism will yield no results, while a subject search on McCarthy, J will retrieve a subject heading for McCarthy, Joe, 1908-1957 which will retrieve over 20 titles. (Even better, a keyword search will yield over 30 titles!)



A catalog of library holdings worldwide, WorldCat can alert you to research resources on your topic not available at F&M. Search WorldCat only if you are having difficulty locating books on your topic, and you have a lot of time before your work is due. Obtaining books found in WorldCat often requires Interlibrary Loan (ILL).

Journals & Newspapers

America History and Life

Comprehensive bibliography of articles on the history and culture of the United States and Canada. Covers prehistory to the present.

Accessible Archives (Includes Pennsylvania newspapers)

Primary source material from 18th and 19th century periodicals. Includes Godey's Ladies Book (1830-80), PA Gazette, Civil War: A Newspaper Perspective, African American Newspapers: The 19th Century, PA Newspaper Record: Delaware County (1819-70), and PA Genealogical Catalog: Chester County (1809-70).

Archives USA

Locate primary resources held in over 118,000 Special Collections with links for contact and access information.

HarpWeek: the Civil War Era 1857-77

Access to a 21-year period of Harper's Weekly covering the Civil War and Reconstruction Era. Provides both full-text and image searching capabilities.

JSTOR (Journal Storage Project)

A collection of abstracts and full-text articles from over 100 scholarly journals considered primary representatives of their disciplines. Coverage is from initial date of publication (with many publications originating in the 19th century), up through the last 4 or 5 years.

Poole's Plus (19th Century masterfile)

Search every relevant printed index to material of the period, including general, legal and religious periodicals. Newspapers indexed include The Times (London) (1880-1890), New York Daily Tribune (1875-1906) and the New York Times (1863-1906).


Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature
Ref Index Area AI3 .R48

Date coverage from 1899- present. Excellent source for general interest periodical literature.

Reader's Guide Retrospective and Reader's Guide Abstracts are online indexes, covering 1957-1982, and 1983 to present, respectively.


The New York Times
Ref Index Area AI21 .N44

Date coverage of 1851- present. Microfilm covering 1851- is located in the main library.

Lexis/Nexis provides online:

*abstracts of articles from January 1, 1969 - May 31, 1980

*full-text articles from June 1, 1980 through the present.

To search Lexis/Nexis:

Guided News Search > > U.S. News > > New York News Sources

Type in your search term(s), then in the "Search This Publication" window, type New York Times.


Lancaster Newspapers

Date coverage from 1799-1900. No index available. May want to browse known date periods for relevant information. Microfilm format found in microfilm reading room.


List of Journal Titles at F&M

Search here on the word Pennsylvania to learn what Pennsylvania-specific journals F&M owns.


eResources by Subject

Guides to online, full-text journals, databases, and web sites. Take a look at the pages for American Studies and History. 

Archives, Historical Societies, etc.

F&M College Archives & Special Collections
Take a look at the Additional Resources page for a bonanza of history web sites!

Lancaster County Historical Society

State Library of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

Repositories of Primary Sources--Eastern States

The American Historical Association

American Memory

For more information, contact Lisa Stillwell,
User Education & Outreach Librarian, ext. 3844.

 last updated: 9/02, ls