Email or Text Us

Email or text us at ask.us@fandm.edu
Email Archives & Special Collections at archives@fandm.edu

Chat With Us

Ask us a question using the chat window to the right. Online hours:
Sunday - Thursday 10:00am - 2:00am
Friday & Saturday 10:00am - 12:00am

Frequently Asked of Us

Check our FAQ for research tips and answers to popular questions.

Visit or Call Us

Stop by the Ask Me desk at Shadek or the Circulation desk at Martin, or call at:
Shadek-Fackenthal (717) 291-4217
Martin Library (717) 291-4331

Meet With Us

Students can meet with a librarian for one-on-one, expert research assistance.

Grad Schools & Jobs

Students can consult with a librarian to research prospective employers and explore graduate school opportunities.

JavaScript disabled or chat unavailable.

Research Tips: Citation Guide


Citation of sources is of critical importance in a scholarly work. It allows the reader to consult the materials for further study and to evaluate the validity of your work. Follow this link for examples of Footnotes & Parenthetical Citation. In most cases, if an entry has no author, place the title in the author position.

Citation examples:

Archives (primary sources)
Books (single author)
Books (multi-author)
Book Article (anthology or reference book)
Journal Article
Newspaper Article
Video (DVDs or VHS tapes)
Government Publications
Images
Website (authored, native print)
Website (unauthored, native web)
Website (authored, native web with print publication data)
Website (periodical publication in online database)
Footnotes
Parenthetical Documentation
Annotated Bibliography
Additional citation resources


Archives (primary sources)

MLA style

Manuscript collection

Franklin and Marshall College, Archives and Special Collections.
Reynolds Family Papers. MS Group 06, Series X.

Archives collection

Office of the President, Keith Spalding. Record Group 05/11.
Franklin and Marshall College, Archives and Special Collections, Lancaster, PA.

Archives folder

Science Building (Stahr Hall, Stager Hall). Record Group 08/03/01.
Franklin and Marshall College, Archives and Special Collections, Lancaster, PA.

Unpublished manuscript

Smith, John. Diary. ms. Record Group 12/05/02.
Franklin and Marshall College, Archives and Special Collections, Lancaster, PA.

Unpublished letter

Reynolds, John F. Letter to Cate Reynolds. 2 September 1861. Reynolds Family Papers.
Franklin and Marshall College, Archives and Special Collections, Lancaster, PA.


Books (single author)

MLA style

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Frye, Northrop. (1957). Anatomy of Criticism:

Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP.

Chicago style

Frye, Northrop. 1957. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays.
Princeton: Princeton UP.


Books (multi-author)

MLA style

Bondanella, Peter, and Julia Conaway Bondanella, eds.
Dictionary of Italian Literature. Westport: Greenwood, 1979. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Bondanella, P., & Bondanella, J.C. (1962). Dictionary of Italian Literature.

Westport: Greenwood..

Chicago style

Bondanella, Peter, and Julia Conaway Bondanella. Dictionary of Italian Literature
Westport: Greenwood, 1962.


Book Article, anthology or reference book

MLA style

Roberts, Sheila. "A Confined World." World Literature Written in English
24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism.
Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Roberts, S. (1984). A Confined World. In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism.

(Vol. 25, pp. 399-402). Detroit: Gale.

Chicago style

Roberts, S. (1984). "A Confined World." In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism.
(Vol. 25, pp. 399-402). Detroit: Gale.


Journal Article

MLA style

Monk, Patricia. "Frankenstein's Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine
Image in Science Fiction." Mosaic 13.3-4 (1980): 15-27. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Monk, P. (1980). Frankenstein's Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine

Image in Science Fiction. Mosaic, 13.3-4, 15-27.

Chicago style

Monk, Patricia. 1980. Frankenstein's Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine
Image in Science Fiction. Mosaic 13.3-4:15-27.


Newspaper Article

MLA style

Dalin, Damon. "A $7 Greeting Card? Yes, But Listen To The Melody It Will Play For You."
Wall Street Journal 10 May 1983, Eastern ed.: D37. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Dalin, D. (1983, May 10). A $7 Greeting Card? Yes, But Listen To The Melody It Will Play For You.

Wall Street Journal, pp. 1, 25.

Chicago style

Damon Dalin, "A $7 Greeting Card? Yes, But Listen To The Melody It Will Play For You."
The Wall Street Journal, May 10, 1983.


Video (DVDs or VHS tapes)

MLA style

A film entry usually begins with the title (italicized) and includes the director, the distributor and the year of release. You may include other data that seem pertinent - such as the names of the writer, performers, and producer - between the title and the distributor.

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart,
Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000).

You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.


Government Publications

MLA style

Congressional Record Vol LV, Part 4 (65th Congress) Washington DC:
Government Printing Office, 1917. Print.

APA style (must be double-spaced)

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental

illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.


Website (authored, native print)

Template:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title or work, as part of larger work."
Title of complete work or site. Name of Organization. Date of document.
Medium. Date of access. .

Example:

Burka, Lauren P. "A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions."
MUD History. 1993. Web. 2 Aug. 1996.
.


Website (unauthored, native web)

Template:

"Title or work, as part of larger work." Title of complete work or site.
Name or Organization. Date of document. Medium. Date of access. .

Example:

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio. Natl. Public Radio,
20 July 2007. Web. 27 July 2007.


Website (authored, native web with print publication data)

Template:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title or work, as part of larger work."
Title of complete print work.vPrint publication data, date.
Title of site. Medium. Date of Access.

Example:

Bierce, Ambrose. "Academy." The Devil's Dictionary. The Collected Works of
Ambrose Bierce. Vol. 7. New York: Neale, 1911. N. pag. The Ambrose
Bierce Project.
Web. 15 May, 2008.


Website (periodical publication in online database)

Template:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Journal or Newspaper Article." Journal or
Newspaper Name. Date of article. Title of site. Medium. Date of access.

Example:

Kozinn, Allan. "New Works in Many Styles". New York Times.
21 November 1997, sec. E: 26. Lexis-Nexis. Web. 28 July 1999.


Footnotes


These are examples of different footnotes, as if they were in sequential order. The blue text afterward explains the rationale for that formatting - take note!

1a. Ji-li Jiang, Red Scarf Girl: A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution, foreword by David Henry Hwang (New York: HarperCollins, 1997), 21.

Note: First time a source is cited. All information is required, unless you follow the instructions in (4) below.

1b. Peasant Ho as quoted in Ji-li Jiang, Red Scarf Girl: A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution, foreword by David Henry Hwang (New York: HarperCollins, 1997), 21.

Note: Example represents how to refer to a quotation lifted from a book or article.

2. Ibid., 35. See also Tariq Ali and Susan Watkins, 1968: Marching in the Streets (New York: Free Press, 1998), 56. The graphic image used in Ali and Watkins' study is especially illustrative of the process described by Jiang.

Note: When a source is immediately repeated, you may use "IBID." If you do not use IBID., skip to (4) below. Please note that IBID. always takes a period. Footnotes also may be used to expand on ideas and to direct readers to sources not necessarily cited in the text, as in this case.

3a. Bertram Gordon, "The Eyes of the Marcher: Paris, May 1968 -- Theory and Its Consequences," in Gerard J. DeGroot, ed., Student Protest: The Sixties and After (London: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998), 39-53.

Note: This is the format for a chapter located in a collection of essays. Since this is the first time the sources is cited, full information is given.

3b. Joann Dimwit, "Raising the Flag," Journal of Inconsequential Studies, 29 (1972), 25.

Note: This citation shows how to refer to an article in a scholarly journal.

4a. Jiang, 57. If you give a complete citation in your bibliography, you may use the short version in your text.

Note: Whenever a source is used again (but not immediately following an earlier citation), you must cite the last name of the author followed by the page number.

4b. Jiang, Red Scarf Girl, 57. Include a shortened title if you use two sources by the same author.

5. JoAnne Fisher, "The Chinese Cultural Revolution," New York Times Magazine, June 1968, 53-72; "Will Mao Stop?," Time, 27 May 1968, 5.

Note: These are the proper formats for newspapers and magazine articles.

6. Lecture notes from presentation by Prof. Eric Zolov, 20 January, 2000. Franklin & Marshall College.

Note: This is the format for class notes or other public presentations.

7. Quoted from the video, The Legacy of Mao (Boston: WGBH Productions, 1997). See also the Hollywood production dealing with Vietnam, Full Metal Jacket (Dir. Oliver Stone, 1987).

Note: This is the format for video and films.

8. Harvey Wallbanger (Prof. of History, Franklin & Marshall College), interview by author, tape recording [or notes from conversation"], Lancaster, PA, 15 March 2000.

Note: This is the format for oral interviews.


Parenthetical Citation


References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited. The information in your parenthetical references in the text must match the corresponding information in the entries in your lists of works cited. To avoid interrupting the flow of your writing, place the parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur (preferably at the end of a sentence), as near as possible to the material documented.

Author's name in text


MLA style

Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
You only need to indicate page numbers, since the author's name appears in the text.

APA style

Tannen (1994) has argued this point.
Date of publication is placed after author's name.

Chicago style

Tannen (1994) has argued this point.
Date of publication is placed after author's name.

Author's name in list of works cited


MLA style

This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).
Author's name and page numbers are placed at the end of the attributed text.

APA style

This point has already been argued (Tannen, 1994).
Author's name and publication date (separated by a comma) are placed at the end of the attributed text. Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within paragraph.

Chicago style

This point has already been argued (Tannen 1994).
Author's name and publication date are placed at the end of the attributed text.

Multiple authors' names in text


MLA style

Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (210-15), hold the opposite point of view.

APA style

Others, like Jakobson and Waugh (1978), hold the opposite point of view.

Multiple authors' names in list of works cited


MLA style

Others hold the opposite point of view (e.g., Jakobson and Waugh 210-15).

APA style

Others hold the opposite point of view (Jakobson & Waugh, 1978).

Chicago style

Others hold the opposite point of view (Jakobson and Waugh 1978).

Citing two or more works by the same author or authors


MLA style

Shakespeare's King Lear has been called a "comedy of the grotesque" (Frye, Anatomy 237).
The book title (underlined) or journal article (in quotes) is provided. If there is no author, then only the book title or journal article would appear.

APA style

Shakespeare's King Lear has been called a "comedy of the grotesque" (Frye, 1982, p. 237).
Include page numbers if only specific parts of a publication are used. If there is no author, then only the book title or journal article would appear, example, (Anatomy, 237)


Annotated Bibliography

Annotations vs. Abstracts

The purpose of the annotation, a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph, is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly articles or journal indexes.

Creating an annotated bibliography

First, locate and record citations to books and journals that may contain useful information on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items, then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book or article using the appropriate style.

Following the citation, write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article, which may include the following:
(a) evaluate the authority or background of the author
(b) comment on the intended audience
(c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or
(d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

Example (using MLA style):

Goldschneider, F. K., Waite, L. J., & Witsberger, C. "Nonfamily living
and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults."
American Sociological Review 51 (1986): 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families.


Additional citation resources:

Citing Information, University of North Carolina
Citing Sources, Duke University
Purdue Online Writing Lab
Research and Documentation, Diana Hacker

Last updated: 12/15/11 ag
 

©2010 Franklin & Marshall College Library | 450 College Ave | PO Box 3003 | Lancaster, PA 17604 | 717-291-4223